Seetha Shankaran, MD
Disclosures: Nothing to disclose - 12/05/2022
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OMB No. 0925-0001 and 0925-0002 (Rev. 09/17 Approved Through 03/31/2020)

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NAME: Seetha Shankaran, MD

eRA COMMONS USER NAME (credential, e.g., agency login):                            aa1974

POSITION TITLE:                            Consultant, Professor of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatal – Perinatal Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine

EDUCATION/TRAINING (Begin with baccalaureate or other initial professional education, such as nursing, include postdoctoral training and residency training if applicable. Add/delete rows as necessary.)

INSTITUTION AND LOCATION

DEGREE

(if applicable)

Completion Date

MM/YYYY

FIELD OF STUDY

Madras Medical College, India

MD

06/1971

Medicine

Jewish Hospital & Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY

Residency

06/1973

Pediatrics

Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI

Fellowship

06/1975

Neonatal/Perinatal Medicine

 

  1. Personal Statement  

My career in Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine has been devoted to performing multicenter randomized controlled trials and longitudinal prospective studies of high-risk infants from infancy to adolescence. I am experienced in performing clinical trials of unproven/promising therapies and understanding factors associated with the etiology, risk, management, and the prevention of brain injury. I was PI of the NICHD NRN trial evaluating antenatal Phenobarbital in the prevention of neonatal hemorrhage in preterm infants. My multi-center experience includes participating as site PI in the NHLBI study evaluating genetic markers of intracranial hemorrhage. Following my experience with evaluating the morbidity and mortality of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in term neonates, I explored treatment of hypothermia as neuroprotection and in 2005 performed the first randomized controlled trial (RCT) of whole-body hypothermia for neonatal HIE in the NICHD Neonatal Research Network. The trial results, published in NEJM have become the standard of therapy throughout the world. I then evaluated the 6–7-year outcome of trial participants (NEJM 2005). I have described the MRI pattern of brain injury that correlates with 18-month outcome (Arch Dis Child) in 2011 and then further evaluated neonatal brain injury patterns and outcome at 6-7 years in the Hypothermia RCT participants (J Pediatrics). My recent contribution as PI of the NRN RCT evaluating optimizing cooling strategies for moderate or severe HIE noted increased mortality (JAMA 2014) and lack of efficacy of either longer or deeper cooling (JAMA 2017) compared to the current standard of care cooling. I have expanded the NICHD NRN MRI pattern of brain injury to evaluate participants in this trial. A photograph of one of the infants who underwent whole-body cooling, and I is on the NICHD Directors Hallway as the most significant NICHD NRN contribution in 25 years. I also served on the Executive Committee of the NIH Pediatric hypothermia following in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest trials. As part of global research, I was active in the first hypothermia for neonatal HIE RCT being performed in a low- and middle-income country (LMIC) in India. I was also an investigator in the study evaluating the role of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in neonates with moderate/severe HIE performed by the UK group. In recognition of my contribution to improving the health of neonates, I was the Landmark Award Landmark Award Honoree, selected by the Society of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, American Academy of Pediatrics in 2021. I am committed to evaluate knowledge gaps and therefore am part of an application to perform a RCT of hypothermia for mild HIE. My experience as the longest serving PI of the NICHD Neonatal Research Network based at Wayne State University is ideal for serving as Consultant of Neonatal team at Children’s Hospital of Michigan and Hutzel Women’s Hospital, now affiliated with Central Michigan University

 

  1. Shankaran, S. Laptook, A.R., Ehrenkranz, R.A., Tyson, J.E., McDonald, S.A., Donovan, E.F., Fanaroff, A.A., Poole, W.K., Wright, L.L., Higgins, R.D., Finer, N.N., Carlo, W.A., Duara, S.D., Oh, W., Cotten C.M., Stevenson, D.K., Stoll, B.J., Lemons, J.A., Guillet, R., Jobe, A.H. (2005). The effect of whole-body hypothermia on the risk of death or disability in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. N Engl J Med, 353,1574-84. PMID: 16221780.
  2. Sudhin Thayyil, Stuti Pant*, Paolo Montaldo*, Deepika Shukla, Vania Oliveira, Phoebe Ivain, Paul Bassett, Ravi Swamy, Josephine Mendoza, Maria Moreno-Morales, Peter J Lally, Naveen Benakappa, Prathik Bandiya, Indramma Shivarudhrappa, Jagadish Somanna, Usha B Kantharajanna, Ankur Rajvanshi, Sowmya Krishnappa, Poovathumkal K Joby, Kumutha Jayaraman, Rema Chandramohan, Chinnathambi N Kamalarathnam, Monica Sebastian, Indumathi A Tamilselvam, Usha D Rajendran, Radhakrishnan Soundrarajan, Vignesh Kumar, Harish Sudarsanan, Padmesh Vadakepat, Kavitha Gopalan, Mangalabharathi Sundaram, Arasar Seeralar, Prakash Vinayagam, Mohamed Sajjid, Mythili Baburaj, Kanchana D Murugan, Babu P Sathyanathan, Elumalai S Kumaran, Jayashree Mondkar, Swati Manerkar, Anagha R Joshi, Kapil Dewang, Swapnil M Bhisikar, Pavan Kalamdani, Vrushali Bichkar, Saikat Patra, Kapil Jiwnani, Mohammod Shahidullah, Sadeka C Moni, Ismat Jahan, Mohammad A Mannan, Sanjoy K Dey, Mst N Nahar, Mohammad N Islam, Kamrul H Shabuj, Ranmali Rodrigo, Samanmali Sumanasena, Thilini Abayabandara-Herath, Gayani K Chathurangika, Jithangi Wanigasinghe, Radhika Sujatha, Sobhakumar Saraswathy, Aswathy Rahul, Saritha J Radha, Manoj K Sarojam, Vaisakh Krishnan, Mohandas K Nair, Sahana Devadas, Savitha Chandriah, Harini Venkateswaran, Constance Burgod, Manigandan Chandrasekaran, Gaurav Atreja, Pallavi Muraleedharan, Jethro A Herberg, W K Kling Chong, Neil J Sebire, Ronit Pressler, Siddarth Ramji, Seetha Shankaran, for the HELIX consortium. Hypothermia for moderate or severe neonatal encephalopathy in low-income and middle-income countries (HELIX): a randomised controlled trial in India, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh. Lancet Global Health. 2021;9: e1273-85. 
  3. Shankaran, S., Barnes, P.D., Hintz, S.R., Laptook, A.R., Zaterka-Baxter, K.M., McDonald, S.A., Ehrenkranz, R.A., Walsh, M.C., Tyson, J.E., Donovan, E.F., Goldberg, R.N., Bara, R., Das, A., Finer, N.N., Sanchez, P.J., Poindexter, B.B., Van Meurs, K.P., Carlo, W.A., Stoll, B.J., Duara, S.M.,  Guillet, R., Higgins, R.D. (2012). Brain injury following trial of hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.  Archives Dis Child, Epub DOI:101136/archdischild-2011-301524.

 

  1. Positions and Employment

1975-1977                            Instructor of Pediatrics, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, MI

1977-1985                            Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, MI

1985-1990                            Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, MI

1990- 2021              Professor of Pediatrics, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, MI   

1990-2016               Director, Division of Neonatal Perinatal Med., Wayne State University, School of Medicine

And Director, Regional Neonatal Programs, Detroit Medical Center (Children's Hospital of Michigan, Hutzel Hospital and Sinai-Grace and Huron Valley-Sinai Hospital), Detroit, MI.

2021-current Consultant Div. Neonatal Perinatal Medicine, Wayne State University

Federal Government public policy advisory committee: Current

  1. Chair, Data Safety and Monitoring Board. Lifestyles During Pregnancy (Life Moms Study) NIDDK/NHLBI/NICHD/NCAM, Bethesda, MD.
  2. Member, Protocol Review Committee and Data Safety and Monitoring Board, Chronic Hypertension in Pregnancy Project (CHAP), funded by NHLBI.
  3. Chair, NICHD review committee for STTR (innovative therapies for neonatal abstinence syndrome) and another for SBIR applications (new technology to evaluate cerebral function).
  4. Executive Committee of the Randomized Controlled Trial of Therapeutic Hypothermia after Pediatric Cardiac Arrest (THAPCA); funded by NHLBI.
  5. Member, Advisory Board, Maternal Fetal Medicine Units Network, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
  6.                                                                                                                                 Consultant, PREVENT (Prevention of of Epilepsy by Reducing Neonatal Encepelopathy)   

     Trial, Imperial College London, UK  

  1. Member, NINDS ZNS1 G48 Special Emphasis Panel
  2. Member NHLBI Chronic Hypertension in Pregnancy (CHAP) Follow-up Study                                                                                   

 

  1. Contributions to Science
  1. The most significant contribution to science I have made to date is performing the first RCT of hypothermia vs. normothermia in term neonates with HIE. The rate of mortality and morbidity was 100% among term infants with severe HIE and 50-60% among those with moderate HIE. Pre-clinical studies in both fetal and neonatal models and across species with timed hypoxia- ischemia demonstrated that cooling to a depth of 5 to 6°C, compared to normothermia was neuroprotective in anatomic, histological, imaging and behavioral outcomes. Therefore, I designed a trial of term neonates with HIE diagnosed within the therapeutic window of 6 hours to whole-body cooling to 33.5°C for 72 hours after a pilot study with the piglet model had shown that it was possible to cool the deep brain with a system already being used for term neonates undergoing deep hypothermic cardiac arrest for cardiac surgery.  The trial took years of planning and execution, and results showed a significant decrease in death or disability among term neonates with moderate or severe HIE from 62 to 44%. This therapy has changed the standard of care of neonates with HIE; today in high resource countries, all neonates with moderate or severe HIE receive hypothermia. I developed the clinical protocol for cooling, available on the public NICHD NRN public website. I have conducted numerous training sessions and presented state-of-the-art lectures in many academic centers in this country and Canada and in Europe, South America and Asia. The trial results are the most cited of all NICHD NRN studies (>2000). I was involved in coordinating 16 secondary studies from this one trial, including 5 as first author.

a.  Shankaran, S., Laptook, A.R., Ehrenkranz, R.A., Tyson, J.E., McDonald, S.A., Donovan, E.F., Fanaroff, A.A., Poole, W.K., Wright, L.L., Higgins, R.D., Finer, N.N., Carlo, W.A., Duara, S.D., Oh, W., Cotton, C.M., Stevenson, D.K., Stoll, B.J., Lemons, J.A., Guillet, R., Jobe, A.H. (2005). The effect of whole body hypothermia on the risk of death or disability in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. N Engl J Med, 353, 1574-84. PMID: 16221780.

b. Shankaran, S., Pappas, A., Laptook, A.R., McDonald, S.A., Ehrenkranz, R.A., Tyson, J.E., Walsh, M., Goldberg, R.N., Rosemary, H.D., Das, A., and NICHD Neonatal Research Network.  (2008). Outcomes of safety and effectiveness in a multicenter randomized controlled trial of whole body hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Pediatrics, 122:e791-8. PMID18829776. PMCID2819143.

c. Shankaran, S. Laptook, A.R., Tyson, J.E., Ehrenkranz, R.A., Bann, C.M., Das, A., Higgins, R.D., Bara, R., Pappas, A., McDonald, S.A., Goldberg, R.N., Walsh, M.C. (2012). Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Evolution of Encephalopathy during Whole Body Hypothermia for Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.  J Pediatr, 160(4),567-572.e3. Epub 2011 Nov 1. PMID: 22050871.

d. Shankaran, S.,   Laptook, A.R., McDonald, S.A., Higgins, R.D., Tyson, J.E., Ehrenkranz, R.A., Das, A., Sant’Anna, G., Goldberg, R.N., Bara, R., Walsh, MC., for the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. (2012). Temperature profile and outcomes of neonates undergoing whole body hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Pediatr Crit Care Med, 13,3-9. PMID: 21499182. PMCID: PMC3161166.

2.              The second contribution is performing the first long-term follow up study demonstrating that the benefits of neuroprotection persist to childhood; most pediatric and adult cooling studies have 9–12-month outcome. I organized the protocol to evaluate growth, neurological, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes of the first trial participants to 6-7 years of age. I trained the personnel in all the NRN sites and co-developed the neurological examination video that currently is available to the public through the NICHD NRN website. The results demonstrated that the benefits seen in infancy continued to 6-7 years with a reduction in death or IQ <70 and severe disabilities among survivors with beneficial impact on the family. As Chair of the Subcommittee, I was involved with the development of 6 secondary studies of childhood outcome following cooling; WSU faculty members I have mentored were first authors of 3 of these studies, evaluating cognitive trajectories, functional outcomes and outcome following low Apgar scores.

  1. Shankaran, S., Pappas, A., McDonald, S.A., Vohr, B.R., Hintz, S.R., Yolton, K., Gustafson, K.E.,  Leach, T.M., Green, C., Bara, R., Petrie-Huitema, C.M., Ehrenkranz, R.A., Tyson, J.E., Das, A., Hammond, J., Peralta-Carcelen, M., Evans, P.W., Heyne, R.J., Wilson-Costello, D.E., Vaucher, Y.E., Bauer, C.R., Dusick, A.M., Adams-Chapman, I., Goldstein, R.F., Guillet, R., Papile, L.A., Higgins, R.D.  (2012). Childhood Outcomes after hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy. N Engl J Med 366, 2085-92. PMID: 22646631; PMCID: PMC3455979.
  2. Pappas, A., Shankaran, S., McDonald, S.A., Vohr, B.R., Hintz, S.R., Ehrenkranz, R.A., Tyson, J.E., Yolton, K., Das, A., Bara, R., Hammond, J., Higgins, R.D., for the Hypothermia Extended Follow-up subcommittee of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver NICHD Neonatal Research Network. (2015). Cognitive Outcome after Neonatal Encephalopathy for Children with and without Cerebral Palsy. Pediatrics, 135(3), e624-34. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-1566.
  3. Natarajan, G., Shankaran, S., Pappas, A., Bann, C., Tyson, J.E., McDonald, S., Das, A., Hintz, S., Vohr, B., Higgins, R., for the Extended Hypothermia Subcommittee of the Eunice Kennedy Shiver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. (2014).  Functional Status (FS) at 18 months as a Predictor of Childhood Disability following Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE).  Dev Med Child Neurol, doi: 10.1111/dmcn.12512.  PMID:24957482. PMCID: PMC4324462.
  4. Natarajan, G., Shankaran, S., Laptook, A.R., Pappas, A., Bann, C.M., McDonald, S.A., Das, A., Higgins, R.D., Hintz, S.R., Vohr, B.R., for the Extended Hypothermia Subcommittee of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. (2013). Apgar scores at 10 min and outcomes at 6-7 years following hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.  Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed, 98(6),F473-9. PMID: 23896791.

3.              The third contribution I have made is evaluating magnetic resonance imaging in hypothermia for neonatal HIE trial participants. There have been MRI scoring systems that were published but the studies were not large, had low follow-up rates, were performed in the pre-hypothermia era and were based on encephalopathy from any etiology. Our study, with a central reader for MRI studies, had 126 trial participants with neonatal MRI and 18-22 mos. outcome from the first trial; we described a pattern of injury that correlated with outcome of death or disability both at 18-22 months and 6-7 years. This MRI pattern of brain injury is being used for 3 on-going NRN hypothermia trials. The NICHD NRN pattern of injury is very helpful to counsel patients in the NICU and serves as a biomarker of later outcome. I have also been involved in imaging studies of infants in hypothermia trials performed in low resource countries where HIE may be associated with maternal infection, fetal growth restriction and poor nutritional status. I have participated in the recent study evaluating magnetic resonance markers in neonatal HIE, an exciting new early biomarker of outcome. Currently I have expanded this scoring system (see below)

  1. Shankaran, S., Barnes, P.D., Hintz, S.R., Laptook, A.R., Zaterka-Baxter, K.M., McDonald, S.A., Ehrenkranz, R.A., Walsh, M.C., Tyson, J.E., Donovan, E.F., Goldberg, R.N., Bara, R., Das, A., Finer, N.N., Sanchez, P.J., Poindexter, B.B., Van Meurs, K.P., Carlo, W.A., Stoll, B.J., Duara, S.M.,  Guillet, R., Higgins, R.D. (2012). Brain injury following trial of hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.  Archives Dis Child,  Epub DOI:101136/archdischild-2011-301524.
  2. Shankaran, S., Pappas, A., McDonald, S.A., Vohr, B.R., Hintz, S.R., Yolton, K., Gustafson, K.E.,  Leach, T.M., Green, C., Bara, R., Petrie-Huitema, C.M., Ehrenkranz, R.A., Tyson, J.E., Das, A., Hammond, J., Peralta-Carcelen, M., Evans, P.W., Heyne, R.J., Wilson-Costello, D.E., Vaucher, Y.E., Bauer, C.R., Dusick, A.M., Adams-Chapman, I., Goldstein, R.F., Guillet, R., Papile, L.A., Higgins, R.D. (2012). Childhood Outcomes after hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy. N Engl J Med, 366, 2085-92. PMID: PMID: 22646631; PMCID: PMC3455979.
  3. Lally PJ, Montaldo P, Oliveira V, Soe A, Swamy R, Bassett P, Mendoza J, Atreja G, Kariholu U, Pattnayak S, Sashikumar P, Harizaj H, Mitchell M, Ganesh V, Harigopal S, Dixon J, English P, Clarke P, Muthukumar P, Satodia P, Wayte S, Abernethy LJ, Yajamanyam K, Bainbridge A, Price D, Huertas A, Sharp DJ, Kalra V, Chawla S, Shankaran S, and Thayyil S, for the MARBLE consortium. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy assessment of brain injury after moderate hypothermia in neonatal encephalopathy: a prospective multicentre cohort study. THE LANCET NEUROLOGY 2019 Jan 18(1):35-45.doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30325-9. Epub 2018 Nov 15. PMID: 30447969. .
  1. The fourth contribution is improving methods of neuroprotection by optimizing cooling strategies for neonatal HIE. The first RCT demonstrated that outcome following cooling resulted in neuroprotection, but death and disability still remained high (44%). The preclinical literature noted that deeper cooling was better than cooling by 5°C depth and since injury after hypoxia-ischemia continued for days or weeks, longer cooling appeared promising. I was PI of the trial to optimize cooling by evaluating whether longer or deeper cooling, or both, would have a lower rate of death or disability at 18 mos. compared to usual cooling. The trial required meticulous planning, a factorial design, Bayesian analysis, exclusion of infants cooled during transport and a very detailed monitoring plan for safety since safety of longer and deeper cooling was unknown. The trial was closed to accrual after 364 of planned 726 were enrolled due to an increase in mortality and greater need for ECMO among the longer and deeper arms compared to usual length (although not reaching statistical significance). The range of mortality was 7 to 17 %, which was below the in-hospital mortality in the first trial (19%). I ensured that the results of increased mortality were available within 6 months of study closure. I then completed the follow-up of the trial participants, noting the longer or deeper cooling or both were not superior to standard depth and duration.
  1. Shankaran, S., Laptook, A.R., Pappas, A., McDonald, S.A., Das, A., Tyson, J.E., Poindexter, B.B., Schibler, K., Bell, E.F., Heyne, R.J., Pedroza, C., Bara, R., Van Meurs, K.P., Grisby, C., Huitema, C.M., Garg, M., Ehrenkranz, R.A., Shepherd, E.G., Chalak, L.F., Hamrick, S.E., Khan, A.M., Reynolds, A.M., Laughon, M.M., Truog, W.E., Dysart, K.C., Carlo, W.A., Walsh, M.C., Watterberg, K.L., Higgins, R.D., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. (2014). Effect of depth and duration of cooling on deaths in the NICU among neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA, 31,312(24), 2629-39. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.16058.OC trial data. PMID: 25536254; PMCID: 4335331.
  2. Shankaran. S., Laptook, A.R., Pappas, A., McDonald, S.A., Das, A., Tyson, J.E., Poindexter, B.B., Schibler, K., Bell, E.F., Heyne, R.J., Pedroza, C., Bara, R., Van Meurs, K.P., Petrie-Huitema, C., Grisby, C., Devaskar, U., Ehrenkranz, R.A., Harmon, H., Chalak, L.F., DeMauro, S.B., Garg, M., Hartley-McAndrew, M., Khan, A.M., Walsh, M.C., Ambalavanan, N., Brumbaugh, J.E., Watterberg, K.L., Shepard, E.G., Hamrick, S.E., Barks, J.D., Cotton, M.C., Kilbride, H.W.,  Higgins, R.D., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. (2017). Effect of depth and duration of cooling on death or disability at 18 months among neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA, 318(1) 57-67. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.7218. PMID: 28672318. PMCID: PMC5793705.
  1. The fifth contribution to science is data on the fetal and childhood onset of adult disease that I focused on in the Maternal Lifestyles Study. As the longitudinal cohort was being followed to adolescence I focused on elucidating risk factors for obesity and hypertension and also the impact of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Information on IUGR status on childhood growth in the context of substance use was unclear; I was first author of the study noting that at 6 years more IUGR infants had hypertension compared to those within normal weight at birth (24% vs. 16%). The effect of cocaine on blood pressure was also not known; I was lead investigator that demonstrated that children born to mothers who used cocaine during pregnancy had a higher risk of hypertension at 6 years of age. Next, I demonstrated that higher cocaine exposure during pregnancy resulted in higher BP at 9 years with BMI as a mediator in analysis. Lastly, I led the study that clarified that risk for obesity in adolescence starts in early childhood, at 2 years.
  1. Shankaran, S. Bann, C., Bauer, C.R.,  Lester, B., Bada, H., Das, A.,  Higgins, R.D., Poole, W.K.,  LaGasse, L., Hammond, J., Woldt, E. (2010). Prenatal cocaine exposure and body mass index and blood pressure at 9 years of age: J Hypertens, 28, 6:1166-75. PMID: 20486281. PMCID: PMC2874425.
  2. Shankaran, S., Das, A., Bauer, C.R., Bada, H., Lester, B., Wright, L., Higgins, R., Poole, K. (2006).  Fetal origin of childhood disease:  Intrauterine growth restriction in term infants and risk for hypertension at 6 years.  Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 160, 977-81. PMID: 16953023.
  3. Shankaran, S. Bann, C., Das, A., Lester, B., Bada, H., Bauer, C.R., La Gasse, L., Higgins, R.D., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. (2011). Risk for obesity in adolescence starts in early childhood.  J Perinatol, 31(11), 711-6. doi: 10.1038/jp.2011.14. PMID: 21415836; PMCID: PMC3717579.
  4. Shankaran, S., Das, A., Bauer, C.R., Bada, H.S., Lester, B.M., Wright, L.L., Higgins, R.D., Poole, W.K. (2011). Cocaine exposure and small for gestational age status at birth: Effects on growth at 6 years of age.  Neurotoxicol Teratol, 33(5),575-81. PMID: 21849244. PMCID: PMC3183411.

 

Complete List of Published Work in My Bibliography:  

 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/myncbi/seetha.shankaran.1/bibliograpahy/41343943/public/?sort=date&direction=ascending

 

  1. Research Support: Submitted: National Institute for Health Care Research (UK): Health Technology Assessment Program. Cooling in Mild Encephalopathy (COMET) RCT. Seetha Shankaran MD, Investigator. Sudhin Thayyil PI.